My research combines experimental and theoretical techniques to investigate mechanisms in virology, immunology, and infectious disease epidemiology. Mathematical studies used in conjunction with data can suggest unforeseen biological mechanisms, determine biologically important rate parameters and evaluate pathogenic mechanisms that are difficult to test directly. A systems biology approach that couples mathematics with experiments has the potential to advance our basic understanding of pathogenic mechanisms and to lead to new therapeutic strategies.
Currently my research group is examining the control of lentiviral infection, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). We use mathematical and computational models of viral dynamics with clinical and experimental data to elucidate the determinants of virus control and escape. Our long-term goal is to uncover fundamental viral or immune mechanisms and to develop effective vaccine strategies.
Other current projects investigate the epidemic spread of influenza infection as well as viral evolution in bacteriophage populations.
Allen LJS, Schwartz EJ. Free-virus and cell-to-cell transmission in models of equine infectious anemia virus. Mathematical Biosciences, In press. DOI: 10.1016/j.mbs.2015.04.001.
Schwartz EJ, Choi B, Rempala GA. Estimating epidemic parameters: Application to H1N1 pandemic data. Mathematical Biosciences, In press. DOI: 10.1016/j.mbs.2015.03.007.
Schwartz EJ, Nanda S, Mealey RH. (2015) Antibody escape kinetics of EIAV infection of horses. Journal of Virology 89(13):6945-51.
Schwartz EJ, Morgan M, Lapin S. Pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza in two settings in a small community: the workplace and the university campus. Epidemiology & Infection 143:1606-9.
Vaidya NK, Morgan M, Jones T, Miller L, Lapin S, Schwartz EJ. (2015)Modelling the epidemic spread of an H1N1 influenza outbreak in a rural university town. Epidemiology & Infection 143:1610-20.
Schwartz EJ, Smith? RJ. (2014) Identifying the conditions under which antibodies protect against infection by equine Infectious anemia virus. Vaccines 2:397-421.
Ciupe SM, Schwartz EJ. (2014) Understanding virus-host dynamics following EIAV infection in SCID horses. J. Theoretical Biology 343:1-8.
Schwartz EJ, Yang OO, Cumberland WG, de Pillis LG. (2013)Computational model of HIV-1 escape from the cytotoxic T lymphocyte response. Canadian Applied Mathematics Quarterly 21(2):261-279.
Miller L, Jones T, Morgan M, Lapin S, Schwartz EJ. (2013) Individual-based computational model used to explain 2009 pandemic H1N1 in rural campus community. J. Biological Systems 21(4):134005.
Schwartz EJ, Pawelek KA, Harrington K, Cangelosi R, Madrid S. (2013)Immune control of equine infectious anemia virus infection by cell-mediated and humoral responses. Applied Mathematics 4:171-177.
Mushayabasa S, Bhunu CP, Schwartz EJ, Magombedze G, Tchuenche JM. (2011) Socio-economic status and HIV/AIDS dynamics: a modeling approach. World Journal of Modeling and Simulation 7(4):243-57.
Snedecor SJ, Strutton D, Ciuryla V, Schwartz EJ, Botteman M. (2009)Transmission-dynamic model to capture the indirect effects of infant vaccination with Prevnar (7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7)) in older populations. Vaccine 27(34):4694-703.
Anton PA, Ibarrondo FJ, BoscardinWJ, Zhou Y, Schwartz EJ, Ng HL, Hausner MA, Shih R, Elliott J, Hultin PM, Hultin LE, Price C, Fuerst M, Adler A, Wong JT, Yang OO, and Jamieson BD. (2008) Differential Immunogenicity of Vaccinia and HIV-1 Components of a Recombinant Vaccine in Mucosal and Blood Compartments. Vaccine 26:4617-4623.
Smith RJ, Schwartz EJ. (2008) Predicting the potential impact of a cytotoxic T lymphocyte HIV vaccine: how often should you vaccinate and how strong should the vaccine be? Math Biosci 212:180-187.
Schwartz EJ, Bodine EN, Blower S. (2007) Effectiveness and Efficiency of Imperfect Therapeutic HSV-2 Vaccines. Human Vaccines 3(6):231-238.
Breban R, McGowan I, Topaz C, Schwartz EJ, Anton P, Blower S. (2006) Modeling the Potential Impact of Rectal Microbicides to Reduce HIV Transmission in Bathhouses. Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering 3(3):459-66.
Schwartz EJ, Szczech LA, Ross MJ, Klotman ME, Winston JA, Klotman PE. (2005) Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and the Epidemic of HIV+ End-Stage Renal Disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 16(8):2412-20.
Schwartz EJ, Blower S. (2005) Predicting the Potential Individual- and Population-Level Effects of Imperfect Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Vaccines. J Infect Dis 191(10):1734-46.
Blower SM, Schwartz EJ, Mills J. (2003) Forecasting the future of HIV epidemics: the impact of antiretroviral therapies and imperfect vaccines. AIDS Reviews 5(2):113-125.
Sunamoto M, Husain M, He JC, Schwartz EJ, Klotman PE. (2003)Critical Role for Nef in HIV-1-induced podocyte dedifferentiation. Kidney Int 64(5):1695-1701.
Schwartz EJ, Fierer DS, Neumann AU, Keller MJ, Parkas V, Klotman ME, Winston JA, Klotman PE. (2002) HIV-1 Dynamics in Hemodialysis Patients. AIDS 16(9):1301-1303.
Husain M, Gusella GL, Klotman ME, Gelman IH, Ross MD, Schwartz EJ, Cara A, Klotman PE. (2002) HIV-1 Nef induces proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in podocytes. J Am Soc Nephrol 13(7):1806-15.
Schwartz EJ, Neumann AU, Teixeira AV, Bruggeman LA, Rappaport J, Perelson AS, Klotman PE. (2002) Effect of Target Cell Availability on HIV-1 Production in Vitro. AIDS 16(3):341-345.
Schwartz EJ, Cara A, Snoeck H, Ross MD, Sunamoto M, Reiser J, Mundel P, Klotman PE. (2001) HIV-1 Induces Loss of Contact Inhibition in Podocytes. J Am Soc Nephrol 12(8):1677-84.
Schwartz EJ, Klotman PE. (1998) Pathogenesis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Nephropathy. Seminars in Nephrology 18(4):436-445.
Rappaport J, Cho Y-Y, Hendel H, Schwartz EJ, Schachter F, Zagury J-F. (1997) 32 BP CCR-5 Gene Deletion and Resistance to Fast Progression in HIV-1 Infected Heterozygotes. Lancet 349:922.
Morgello S, Uson RR, Schwartz EJ, Haber RS. (1995) The Human Blood-Brain Barrier Glucose Transporter (GLUT1) is a Glucose Transporter of Gray Matter Astrocytes. Glia 14:43-54.