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Gerald Edwards

Gerald Edwards

Field of Study: Climate/Photosynthesis
Title: Regents Professor
Degrees: Ph.D., Plant Science, University of California at Riverside
Office: 301 Heald
Phone: 509-335-2539
Fax: 509-335-3184
Mailing Address: School of Biological Sciences
Washington State University
PO Box 644236
Pullman WA 99164-4236

Research Interests

I work on mechanisms of photosynthesis, including effects of environmental stress and global climate change, with studies ranging from the cellular to the whole plant level in C3, C4 and CAM plants. Research on C4 photosynthesis is focused on diversity in structure, function and evolution in grasses and eudicot families. This includes studies on species in family Chenopodiaceae from Central Asian Deserts that are adapted to high temperature, drought, and salinity. Research is also being conducted on chenopods which, surprisingly, can perform C4 photosynthesis within individual photosynthetic cells; i.e. without the dual-cell Kranz type anatomy which was previously thought to be required. I am a member of a consortium of scientists whose goal is exploring the potential for genetic engineering of rice, a C3 crop, to perform C4 photosynthesis.


2002 – Institute for Scientific Information List of 108 Most Cited Researchers in Plant and Animal Science.

– Received Charles F. Kettering Award, for excellence in the field of Photosynthesis, from the American Society of Plant Biologists.

2003 – Presented the Sahlin Award for Excellence in Research, Teaching and Arts, by Washington State University.

– Presented Washington State University’s 69th Annual Distinguished Faculty Address, “Living by Photosynthesis.”

2006 – Received WSU College of Sciences Distinguished Faculty Award.

2007 – Promoted to rank of Regents Professor.

2011 – Fellow of American Association for the Advancement of Science

2011 – Fellow of the American Society Society of Plant Biologists

2011 – Elected member of the Washington State Academy of Sciences

2012 – Received College of Sciences Outstanding Researcher Award

Representative Publications

King, J, GE Edwards, AB Cousins 2012 The efficiency of the CO2 concentrating mechanism during single-cell C4 metabolism. Plant Cell Environment 35: 513-523.


Voznesenskaya E.V., Koteyeva N.K., Roalson E.H. & Edwards G.E. 2012 Evolution of C4 photosynthesis in section Coccosalsola of the Salsoleae (Chenopodiaceae). In Caryophyllales: New insights into the phylogeny, systematics and morphological evolution of the Order (eds A.K. Timonin, A.P. Sukhorukov, G.H. Harper & M.V. Nilova), pp. 44-47. Moscow M.V. Lomonosov State University, Moscow, Russia.


Kirchhoff, H, RM Sharpe, M Herbstova, R Yarbrough, GE Edwards 2013 Differential mobility of pigment-protein complexes in granal and agranal thylakoid membranes of C3 and C4 plants.  Plant Physiology 161:497-507.


Voznesenskaya, EV, NK Koteyeva, H Akhani, EH Roalson, GE Edwards. 2013 Structural and physiological analyses in Salsoleae (Chenopodiaceae) indicate multiple transitions among C3, intermediate and C4 photosynthesis. Journal of Experimental Botany 64:3583-3604.


Giuliani, R, N Koteyeva, E Voznesenskaya, MA Evans, AB Cousins, and GE Edwards. 2013 Coordination of leaf photosynthesis, transpiration and structural traits in rice and wild relatives (genus Oryza). Plant Physiology. 162: 1632-1651


Ocampo, G, NK  Koteyeva, EV Voznesenskaya, GE Edwards, TL Sage, RF Sage, and JT Columbus.  2013 Evolution of leaf anatomy and photosynthetic pathways in Portulacaceae. American Journal of Botany. 100: 2388-2402.


Stutz, SS, GE Edwards, AB Cousins 2014 Single cell C4 photosynthesis: efficiency and acclimation of Bienertia sinuspersici to growth under low light. New Phytologist. 202: 220-232.


Koteyeva NK, EV Voznesenskaya, AB Cousins, and GE Edwards. 2014 Differentiation of C4 photosynthesis along a leaf developmental gradient in two Cleome species having different forms of Kranz anatomy. Journal of Experimental Botany. 65:3525-3541.


Rosnow J, GE Edwards, EH Roalson. Positive selection of Kranz and nonKranz C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase amino acids in Suaedoideae (Chenopodiaceae). 2014 Journal of Experimental Botany. 65:3595-3607. doi:10.1093/jxb/eru053


Rosnow, J,  PK Yerramsetty, JO Berry, TW Okita, GE Edwards. 2014 Exploring mechanisms linked to differentiation and function of dimorphic chloroplasts in the single cell C4 species Bienertia sinuspersici. BMC Plant Biology 14:34, doi:10.1186/1471-2229-14-34


Gandin, A, NK Koteyeva, EV Voznesenskaya, GE Edwards, AB Cousins.  2014 The acclimation of photosynthesis and respiration to temperature in the C3-C4 intermediate Salsola divaricata: Induction of high respiratory CO2 release under low temperature. Plant Cell and Environment. 37: 2601-2612.


von Caemmerer S, G Edwards, N Koteyeva, A Cousins. 2014 Single cell C4 photosynthesis in aquatic and terrestrial plants: a gas exchange perspective. Aquatic Botany. 118: 71-80.



Koteyeva NK, EV Voznesenskaya, GE Edwards  2015 An assessment of the capacity for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase to contribute to C4 photosynthesis. Plant Science 235:70-80.


Offermann, S., Friso, G., Doroshenk, K.A., Sun, Q., Sharpe, R.M., Okita, T.W., Wimmer, D., Edwards, G.E., and van Wijk, K.J. 2015 Developmental and subcellular organization of single-cell C4 photosynthesis in Bienertia sinuspersici determined by large scale proteomics and cDNA assembly from 454 DNA sequencing. J Proteome Research. 14: 2090-2108.


Rosnow JJ, MA Evans, MV Kapralov, AB Cousins, GE Edwards, EH Roalson. 2015 Kranz and single-cell forms of C4 plants in subfamily Suaedoideae show kinetic C4 convergence for PEPC and Rubisco with divergent amino acid substitutions. J Experimental Botany. 66: 7347-7358


Koteyeva NK, EV Voznesenskaya, J Berry, AB Cousins, GE Edwards. 2016 The unique structural and biochemical development of single cell C4 photosynthesis along longitudinal leaf gradients in Bienertia sinuspersici and Suaeda aralocaspica (Chenopodiaceae). J Experimental Botany. 67: 2587-2601.


Moinuddin M, S Gulzar, A Hameed, B Gul, MA Khan, GE Edwards 2017 Differences in photosynthetic syndromes of four halophytic marsh grasses in Pakistan. Photosynth Res 131:51-64


Juri´ I, V Gonz´alez-P´ereza, MAGIC consortium, JM Hibberd, G Edwards, N Burrough. 2017 Size matters for single-cell C4 photosynthesis in Bienertia. J Experimental Botany. 68: 255-267


Schüssler C, H Freitag, N Koteyeva, D Schmidt, G Edwards, E Voznesenskaya, G Kadereit. 2017 C4 photosynthesis evolution and the model of stepwise acquisition of C4 photosynthesis in Salsoleae s.s. (Chenopodiaceae). J Experimental Botany. 68: 207-223


Voznesenskaya EV, NK Koteyeva, GE Edwards, G Ocampo. 2017 Unique photosynthetic phenotypes in Portulaca (Portulacaceae): C3-C4 intermediates and NAD-ME C4 species with Pilosoid type Kranz anatomy. J Experimental Botany. 68: 225-239